System of agricultural and social design principles based on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. The term permaculture was developed by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. The word permaculture originally referred to as “permanent agriculture”, but was expanded to stand for “permanent culture”, as it was understood that social aspects were integral to a truly sustainable system as inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka’s natural farming philosophy.
Permaculture has many branches that include, construction, ecological design, ecological engineering and environmental design. Permaculture also includes integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.